(under continuous development)

"Those who fail to learn from the lessons of history are doomed to repeat it" --  George Santayana

(Part 1 of this chronology can be found here)


PART 2: 1972 onward

1972:  The Bangkok Astrology School, teaching Hamburg School techniques, is founded by Prayoon Pol-aree, honorary member of the Hamburg School and authorized publisher of Thai translations of Hamburg School reference books.  Under the co-leadership of president Jarun Picul, the Bangkok school offers 23 classes with an annual enrollment of 30 to 50 students per class, and continues until Lt Gen Pol-aree's demise in 1992 (Pol-aree, Pillai, 2001). 

1975:  Several major events occur this year:

a) Udo Rudolph becomes president of the Hamburg School of Astrology, and sets about to start an English-language Uranian publication, and also publish several historical Hamburg School referencess mentioned below. (Brummund, 1999-2000).

b) The Uranian Forum, an English-language periodical, is first published in Germany by Rudolph/Witte-Verlag. (Brummund, 1999-2000).

c) Der Mensch - eine Empfangsstation kosmischer Suggestionen, a 358-page anthology of early articles by Alfred Witte and contemporaries, written mostly between 1913 and 1924, with an introduction by Hermann Sporner and comments by Ludwig Rudolph, is published in German by Ludwig Rudolph / Witte-Verlag.  It includes a number of interesting articles on astrological correspondences with the color spectrum and the musical scale; mundane political events of Witte's time; tables of latitude for Neptune, Cupido, and Hades; tables of declination for Cupido and Hades; perpetual ephemerides with calculation tables for Uranus, Neptune, Cupido, Hades, and Kronos; house system variations; rectification techniques; planetary pictures; sensitive points; and other techniques Alfred Witte experimented with in earlier years.  Unfortunately, Witte was prohibited by the Third Reich from publishing astrology articles during later years, and his ongoing research and substantial changes in perspective which evolved during the 18-year period from 1924 to 1941 are not included. Some of these changes are represented in the Ruth Brummund material.

d) The Language of Uranian Astrology, by Roger A Jacobson, is published in the USA by Fritz Reider at Uranian Publications in Frankville Wisconsin, near Chicago.  This book summarized the more tradition-based of Witte's techniques, per Hermann Lefeldt, and was one of the most comprehensive and intelligible English-language Uranian texts for a number of years. (Jacobson, 1975).

Hamburg School conference, 1979: Ruth Brummund is at the left with the white coat, and next to her is Udo Rudolph with the checkered cap.  Ludwig Rudolph is in the front row, right of center, with the brown cap and dark overcoat, and Emma Rudolph is to his right, with eyeglasses.  In the back, peeking around the lady with the red scarf and white hair is Hermann Sporner, and the tall man with the glasses next to him, at the center of the back row and behind Ludwig Rudolph is Carl Perch.

1977: The fifth (1959) edition of Witte's Regelwerk is for the first time widely available in English translation as the Rulebook for Planetary Pictures, published by Rudolph/Witte-Verlag. (Witte, 1959).

1979: The first, smaller edition of Ruth Brummund's Regelwerk-Neufassung, which could translate as Revised Rulebook, is published in German by Rudolph/Witte-Verlag, for the first time integrating psychological keywords from her earlier Astrologische Charaktermerkmale into a Rulebook-type Uranian reference, reformatting so that the interpretations for the 3 variants of any triplicity are found in one location.  This book revolutionizes Hamburg School astrology. Translation of it into English are underway when a substantially enlarged second German edition appears in 1990, and efforts are shifted to preparing it instead for translation under the title "The Brummund Rulebook". This book and related progress in Uranian materials begin to slowly make their way into the Anglophone Uranian community in the late 1990s  The English translation of the Brummund Rulebook first appears in the Special Uranian computer program, by Aureas Software, in 2005. (Brummund, 1990, 2001)

Also in 1979, Ruth Brummund publishes Ortsmeridiane und Ortsaszendenten für wichtige Welthauptstädte (Local Meridians and Ascendants for Major World Cities) appears in German.  This is a listing of major cities together with their fixed AS and MC according to the geodetic-like system of authoritative German astrologer A.M. Grimm, where derivations from the 0° Aries Greenwich point are determined by Right Ascension rather than Longitude, as in Sepharial's system.  The book contains 3 listings, one by order of Ascending degree, one by order of MC degree, and one by city, in alphabetical order. (Brummund, 1979).

1980: Foundation of "The Uranian Society" by Charles Emerson, which ultimately becomes the Uranian Special Interest Group (SIG) of the NCGR; on 26 July in New York at 17:43 EDT [4hE] per the group's journal Urania (see Urania).


1982: The Lexikon-Neufassung, an astrological dictionary that is in essence an alphabetized reordering of the material in Ruth Brummund's first 1979 edition of the Regelwerk-Neufassung, appears in German.  The book is divided into two sections, one listing psychological keywords and their associated planetary combinations, and the other section listing events and manifestations with their associated planetary combinations.  It has yet to be translated into English (Brummund, 1982).

1983: Ruth Brummund begins research on the frequency of Venus and Cupido in the charts of artists, using the Hamburg School computer program written by programmer Bernd Westphal (Brummund, 1999).

1984:  The Uranian Mandala is first presented by Ruth Brummund in the Hamburger Hefte as the Uranian "Meditation Wheel".  This tool for psychological assessment is based on Freudian and Jungian concepts synthesized by Roberto Assagioli.  Ms Brummund makes a number of refinements to the Mandala after application and study with other German astrologers and clients (Brummund, 2000). For more information on the Mandala, click here.

Ruth Brummund presenting her research to Michel Gauquelin  in Hamburg in 1988


1985:  The Handbuch der Astrologie der Hamburger Schule is published in German by Ludwig Rudolph (Witte-Verlag). This book mixed older, historical Hamburg School methods (included by Udo Rudolph) with more recent methods (included by Ruth Brummund). This book is published in English translation as Handbook of Techniques for the Hamburg School. Ruth Brummund later publishes (in 1994) Uranische Techniken to exclude the historical methods (houses, A+B-C pictures, etc) so that students can focus on more up-to-date and contemporary methods.  (Brummund, 2000).

1988: Michel Gauquelin speaks in Hamburg, where Ruth Brummund presents him with her research thesis on Venus and Cupido (Brummund, 2000)

1990: A second and substantially enlarged edition of the Regelwerk-Neufassung by Ruth Brummund is published, including a large number of additional interpretations for physical manifestations, likely event manifestations, and psychological traits, into a single text.  This book brings Uranian Astrology in line with contemporary astrological developments in western Astrology.  Sections of introductory material from this book have been published in English on the Uranian Beacon/Institute website. The book also includes updated information on the Uranian Astrological Mandala, a tool for psychological assessment developed by Ms Brummund Both the Uranian Mandala and the Brummund Rulebook are now integrated, in electronic format into the Special Uranian astrology computer program by Aureas Software, along with an on-screen, alphabetically searchable Lexicon function for the material. (Brummund, 1990).

1992:  The 1985 German Handbuch zur Astrologie der Hamburger Schule of both historic techniques and contemporary techniques is edited for presentation in English by Penelope Bertucelli and published as the Handbook of Techniques for the Hamburg School.  Note that this book is not to be confused with the later and more current Brummund Uranische Techniken Hamburg Astrologen, appearing in German in 1994, which afterward served as the guideline for methods presented in the Special Uranian astrology program designed by Aureas Software, and the methods used in most articles on the Uranian Institute/Beacon website. (Brummund, 1999-2000).

2nd German edition of the Brummund Rulebook, first published in 1990

  Also in 1992, while ownership of copyrights of older Hamburg School material (including the Witte-Lefeldt Rulebooks) was changing hands to acquisition by Michael Feist, copyrights for newer Hamburg School materials written by Ruth Brummund, including the Regelwerk-Neufassung are bought directly by Ms Brummund from Rudolph/Witte-Verlag, after which Ms Brummund publishes a new and larger edition of her Revised Rulebook independently. Translation rights are assigned to Blake Finley (Brummund, 2000). 

1993:  Udo Rudolph presents the first of a number of lectures and seminars on Hamburg School astrology at the Riga Aviation University in Latvia.  Subsequent lectures there lead to plans for the establishment of the Alfred Witte Institute in Riga (U. Rudolph, 2000).

  Also in 1993,  Ruth Brummund steps down from the Board of Directors of the Hamburg School after contributing to the doubling of membership of the Hamburg School over a 23-year period, and establishes an independent, forward-looking course abandoning historical methods perpetuating classical astrology paradigms.  After consultation with astrologers from around Germany, Ms Brummund officially adopts the term "Uranische Astrologie" at a meeting in Essen, on 11 February, to describe a new prioritized and coherent system integrating the most proven and pragmatic techniques of Hamburg School astrology, indifferent to techniques previously maintained for the sake of preserving astrological traditions. A new, integrated symbol for Uranian Astrology is subsequently completed in Munich on 29 January 1994.  Ms Brummund's Uranian Astrology symbol combines the European glyphs for Sun, Uranus, Pluto, Kronos, and Poseidon, and stands out from a yellow background. (Brummund, 2000)

1st German edition of the new Brummund Technique Book, first published in 1994.

1994: Ruth Brummund emphasizes, consistent with Ludwig Rudolph's later teachings, that Hamburg School astrology includes overall a potentially confusing maze of both essential and marginal historical/experimental techniques.  Thus, after nearly 40 years experience with both Hamburg School and Cosmobiology techniques, she publishes a coherent, pragmatic, streamlined approach to Uranian Astrology.  In her independently authored Uranischen Techniken Hamburger Astrologen (The Brummund Technique Book), Ms Brummund also clarifies the calculations and interpretative approach for the Uranian Mandala. This book is not to be confused with the earlier, more tradition-focused Handbook of Techniques for the Hamburg School (published in German in 1985 and English in 1992, co-authored with Udo Rudolph, and edited for presentation in English by Penelope Bertucelli).   At this point a clear distinction is made, in Germany that Uranian Astrology is a separate entity from Hamburg School astrology, although evolved from its roots, in a similar manner that Cosmobiology also developed as a distinct school apart from the Hamburg School, its roots -- and that what both Uranian Astrology and Cosmobiology have in common is an emphasis on a more thorough and detailed use of midpoints that justifies minimizing, or dispensing with, the role of historical house systems. Brummund's approach to Uranian Astrology serves as the guideline for development of the Special Uranian astrology computer program by Aureas Software, and the bulk of uranian astrology material presented on the Uranian Institute/Beacon website. (Brummund, 1994, 2000; Finley 2015).

1995: A Hamburg School chapter of the DAV (German Astrologers' Association) is established (U. Rudolph, 2000).

1997: Having transferred editorship of the Hamburger Hefte in 1995, the Hamburg School begins publishing a new journal entitled the ASHS Forum, edited by Udo Rudolph.  (Interim 1996 issues were published under the title "Synthese".) (Brummund, 2000).

  Also in 1997, the Alfred Witte Institute is established in Riga, Latvia (on 16 March) following several years of lectures on Hamburg School astrology by Udo Rudolph at the Riga Aviation University.  The first classes have an enrollment of 120 students (U. Rudolph, 2000).

  Additionally in 1997, a new Uranian/Cosmobiology website and discussion group is started in New Zealand by Steven Lee.   The group and site are eventually subsumed under the general title "Symmetrical Astrology".

1998:  The 50th anniversary of the Hamburg School is celebrated with a commemorative conference in Hamburg with lectures by Udo Rudolph, Ruth Brummund, and other Uranian astrologers from around the world. (Brummund, 1999).

1999:  A new Transneptune Ephemeris for 1920-2000, compiled by Ruth Brummund, incorporating the latest data for Transneptunian calculations, is published by Udo Rudolph Verlag.

Ruth Brummund speaking at the Hamburg School 50th anniversary celebration in 1998.  

Above Ms Brummund is an oil portrait of Alfred Witte presented to the Hamburg School by members from Thailand.

  Also in 1999,  the Uranian Beacon is launched in San Francisco, independently of the Hamburg School, and with cooperation from Ruth Brummund, on 5 September: a website designed to  integrate developments in current astrological techniques and frontier physics with the humanistic developments in Uranian Astrology.  The Beacon serves as the foundation for the later Uranian Institute, established in December 2001.

2000:  Birth of Uranian Astrology for a New Age on 8 May, an English and Thai website maintained by Supphaluck Pillai, graduate of the Bangkok Astrology School, senior staff member of the Institute of Prediction of Thailand, and representative of the Astrology Society of Thailand, under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty the Queen of Thailand.

  Also in 2000, a new Transneptune Ephemeris for 2001-2050, compiled by Ruth Brummund, and incorporating the latest data for Transneptunian calculations, is published by Udo Rudolph Verlag.

2001: Birth of the Uranian Astrology section of, written by Ruth Brummund, including beginning lessons and other pertinent articles on the more recent developments in Uranian Astrology.

  Also in 2001, due to its evolutionary development, the Uranian Beacon is renamed the Uranian Institute/Beacon for Astrological Study & Research on 7 December in San Francisco.  

2002: The Special Uranian astrology computer program is designed specifically to include only those Uranian techniques that have both withstood the test of time, and also reflect more current and developments in Uranian astrology more cognizant of positive potentials alongside observation of real dangers indicated.  The program includes  the Uranian Mandala. 

2004: The text of the new Brummund Rulebook, the most comprehensive-yet-concise reference for midpoint interpretation, is integrated into the Special Uranian program, along with a Lexicon function equating with an on-line dictionary of planetary pictures.  For more information, click here.

2005:  The Uranian Institute/Beacon website (created and maintained by Blake Finley) expands to include Uranian astrology lessons and articles in the French and Spanish languages.

2007: The International Uranian Fellowship (IUF) is founded in Holland on 20 May by Michael Feist, with Tiziana Ghardini, Lietta Catoni, Maria Simms, Francine Rasenberg, Udo Rudolph, and Meira Epstein as signatories. (Epstein)  

2008: Death of Udo Rudolph, longtime president of the Hamburg School, followed by Hamburg School assets (excluding those created and bought by Ruth Brummund) being transferred to his nephew Michael Feist.




SOURCES  This comprehensive German-language website includes a special section on Uranian Astrology with articles by Ruth Brummund, which can be found at 

Brummund, R. 1979. Ortsmeridiane und Ortsaszendenten für wichtige Welthauptstädte. Hamburg: Ludwig Rudolph (Witte-Verlag).

Brummund, R. 1982. Lexikon-Neufassung. Hamburg: Ludwig Rudolph (Witte-Verlag).

Brummund, R. 1990. Regelwerk-Neufassung, 2.Auflage. Hamburg: Ruth Brummund Eigenverlag (significantly larger than the Regelwerk-Neufassung of 1979).

Brummund, R. 1994. Uranischen Techniken Hamburger Astrologen. Hamburg: Ruth Brummund Eigenverlag.

Brummund, R. 1999-2001. Unpublished documents. personal correspondence with Blake Finley.

Epstein, M. 2010. Meira Epstein's Authorstream presentation on IUF history at the IUF 2010 international conference.

Jacobson, R. 1975. The Language of Uranian Astrology. Franksville WI USA: Uranian Publications.

Pol-aree, P. & Pillai, S. 2001.  Data from Miss Pannjai Pol-aree, daughter of Prayoon Pol-aree, and Supphaluck Pillai, senior staff member of the Institute of Prediction of Thailand, and representative of the Astrology Society of Thailand, under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty the Queen of Thailand.

Rudolph, L. 1933. Leitfaden der Astrologie. Hamburg: Witte Verlag.

Schnitzler, I. 1957. Lexikon für Planetenbilder, Hamburg: Ludwig Rudolph (Witte-Verlag).

Witte, A. & Lefeldt, H. 1959. Regelwerk für Planetenbilder, 5.Auflage. Hamburg: Ludwig Rudolph (Witte-Verlag).

Witte, A. & Sporner, H. (ed.) 1975. Der Mensch -- eine Empfangsstation kosmischer Suggestionen (Man: A receiving station of cosmic influences), Hamburg: Ludwig Rudolph (Witte-Verlag).